雅思阅读长难句结构分析

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雅思阅读有大量结构复杂、难以理解和把握的长难句。这些长难句对理解文章或做题非常重要,经常会有一些考点隐藏在其中。
阅读长难句结构有以下几种:
  
一、加复杂修饰的简单句
  对于难度较大的简单句,阅读的基本方法是确定句子的主、谓、宾,找出句子的主干,忽略其他的成分,将长句变成短句,将句型结构复杂的句子变成句型结构简单的句子。
  例:
At various points in evolutionary history, enterprising individuals within many different animal groups moved out onto the land, sometimes even to the most parched(炎热的,干旱的) deserts, taking their own private seawater with them in blood and cellular(细胞的) fluids. (剑9 Test 1 Passage 3)
  分析:
这句话的结构很简单,就是主谓宾:主语是individuals,谓语是 moved out,宾语是 the land, the most parched deserts。但是由于添加了一些状语,一些修饰语——例如within介词短语修饰individuals,taking短语做伴随状语,使整个句子看起来结构复杂。
二、并列句
如果句子包含两个或更多互不依从的主谓结构,就是并列句。并列句中的分句通常用一个并列连词来连接,最常见的并列连词有and, or 和but。
最简单的方法就是将句子从并列连词处断开,将并列句变成两个或若干个相对短的句子,然后再用处理简单句的方法——抓句子主干,来依次处理每个相对短的句子。
  例:
An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending information across the galaxy(星系), but many of these either require too much energy, or else are severely attenuated (衰减的)while traversing the vast distances across the galaxy.(剑9 Test 1 Passage 2)
  分析:
这个复合句可以从but处将句子分成两个相对较短的句子:but前面是一个简单句;but后面的句子有一个由while引导的时间状语从句。
  
三、各种从句
从句不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。从句可以分为:主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句6类。
前四类从句在句子的功用相当于名词,所以通称名词性从句;定语从句功能相当于形容词,称为形容词性从句;而状语从句功能相当于副词,称为副词性从句。
  例:
Second, we make a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us, since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a life form, quite apart from whether we are able to communicate with it. (剑9 Test 1 Passage 2)
  分析:
这句话的主干是we make a very conservative assumption that…that…since if…whether…。第一个That引导的从句作assumption的同位语,第二个that引导定语从句修饰a life form,since引导时间状语从句,if引导条件状语从句。
四、插入语结构
  插入语一般是对句子的某个成分的解释或补充说明,前后有逗号与其他句子成分分开,比较容易识别。处理插入语的基本办法是先略去不读,直接跳过两个逗号之间的内容,使插入语结构前后意思顺畅。
  例:
The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (l-INCE), on the advice of the World Health Organization, has established an international working party, which includes New Zealand, to evaluate noise and reverberation(混响,反射) control for school rooms. (剑9 Test 2 Passage 1)
  分析:
这句话的主语很长The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (l-INCE),谓语是has established,宾语是an international working party,on the advice of…是插入语,which引导非限制性定语从句修饰an international working party。
五  后置定语修饰成分多
     例:
A few years ago, in one of the most fascinating and disturbing experiments in behavioural psychology, Stanley Milgram of Yale University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for their willingness to obey instructions given by a “leader” in a situation in which the subjects might feel a personal distaste for the actions they were called upon to perform. (5A0102)
这个句子猛的一看让让人发懵,其实就是一个简单的主谓宾加一个定语从句的结构
主句为:
Stanley Milgram of Yale University tested 40 subjects…from all walks of life for their willingness to obey instructions given by a “leader” in a situation…只是对subjects的一个后置修饰, 其中出现了一些层层套嵌的后置修饰。 最后在situation的后面又加了一个定语从句。
六,倒装结构及其他
在英语当中,主语和谓语有两种顺序:一种和汉语一致,即主语在前;另外一种顺序是谓语在主语前面,即倒装。
阅读中一般会出现以not only等否定连词和never, seldom rarely, hardly等否定副词引导的倒装句。
理解倒装句,就要把它转换成普通语句,把倒装语序还原为自然语序,在自然语序下理解句子。
  例:
In a dispute, not only do the interests of one party not coincide with those of the other party, but they are in conflict.
  分析:
该句中,not only...but also...引导了倒装句,把其中的句子换成正常语序就是:the interests of one party do not coincide with those of the other party.
  
其他句式
1. But it was a chance stumbling upon a run-down, yet functional, laboratory in his late grandfather's home that solidified the young man’s enthusiasm for chemistry. (剑9 Test 1 Passage 1 )
  句子结构分析:
but表转折,it was a chance…that 是典型的强调句式,强调部分是a chance stumbling upon a run-down, yet functional, laboratory in his late grandfather's home。Late 表示已故的。
2. Thus, when Hofmann made some passing comments about the desirability of a synthetic substitute for quinine, it was unsurprising that his star pupil was moved to take up the challenge. (剑9 Test 1 Passage 1 )
  句子结构分析:
Thus连词,因而。When引导时间状语从句, it was unsurprising that…表示毫不奇怪,是it is/was+adj. + that结构句式。
  上面就是给大家分享的阅读常见的长难句结构种类,仅供参考。同学们平时要多加练习,做到看到一个长难句,就能迅速剥离出主干结构,这样做题速度就会提升起来。
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